Artworks are here classified according to the creative process behind them, partially identified by Bruno Munari in the late 1970s.

This is an extra content, and it is best understood if you already have looked at the Chapter 4 of the book before tackling it.

01. Opposites

02. Visual or functional similarities

03. Change of scale, context, material etc…

04. Combine or repeat, same or different parts

05. Collections

06. Optical illusions

07. Mixture of the examples above


01. Opposites:
the use of contraries and opposites are the most elementary expression of creativity. And perhaps the oldest form.

The world upside down , ca. 1820

Laurel & Hardy (Thicker Than Water)_01Laurel and Hardy, a fat / skinny couple, ca. 1940

2602 copyA Priest and Nun sharing a romantic kiss, Oliviero Toscani, ca. 1990

filippo-minelli-youtube-phnom-penh-cambodia-2007From the series “contradictions”, Filippo Minelli ca. 2007

More examples to come

02. Visual or functional similarities:
this is a clear case that shows how ordinary things can be seen differently. You will never look at bikes the same way again!

Ingre’s Violin – Man Ray, ca. 1924

Picasso, Bull’s Head, 1942

chema_madoz71Chema Madoz, ca. 2011

colour_pensils_Artist Jonna PohjalainenJonna Pohjalainen, ca. 2006

sergebloch2Serge Bloch, ca. 2008

3823898395_8b586b8958_zBanksy, ca. 2008

Dan Cretu, ca. 2016

03. Change of scale, context, material etc… :
in our mind, every object has its own attributes, properties and functions. In this case creativity is changing one or more of these characteristics: bananas are red and trees are made of plastic.

Marcel Duchamp fountain
Fountain – Duchamp, ca. 1917. (Change of context)

Simone Decker, ca. 1999 (Change of scale)

0ls_objects_m2Radford Wallis Design, ca. 2010. (Change of scale)

Sebastian Errazuriz, ca. 2006. (Change of context)

Stefan Zwicky,
ca. 2007. (Change of material)

More examples to come

04. Combine or repeat, same or different parts:

Beast from the sea (dragon with 7 heads), ca. 1500

Picture 005
Tadashi Kawamata, ca. 2008

Karen Ryan, ca. 2009

Jim Olson and Alan Maskin, ca. 2009

Maxime Ansiau, ca. 2012

More examples to come

05. Collections:
in this case creativity finds all objects that have something in common. (That “something” might be unnoticed by many)
Eric Tabuchi, ca. 1986

col_berndandhillabecher01Bernd and Hilla Becher, ca. 2009

batDaniel Eatock, ca. 2012

More examples to come

06. Optical illusions:
they are the physical proof of how everything can be seen differently.




pipe1 Markus Raetz, ca. 2012

More examples to come

07. Mixture of the examples above:

More examples to come

Please note that this list is in progress and these categories are not always so clear and distinct.

It doesn’t aim to categorize all the artworks in the world but it is an effort for making more accessible and understandable the process of creating an art work.

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